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Edexcel International GCSE Chemistry
Edexcel Certificate in Chemistry

Links for Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

Video clips and animations

Simple model of an atom

A simple view of protons, neutrons and electrons in atoms. You may wonder why the electrons shown end up as a fuzzy cloud. This represents a half-way stage to a more sophisticated view of electrons. YouTube

Isotopes of hydrogen

A very short explanation of how the three isotopes of hydrogen arise. YouTube

Other interesting sites

How carbon dating works

Carbon dating is mentioned in the chapter in the context of isotopes. If you want to know how it works, this link will tell you in a straightforward and understandable way. Not on the syllabus, but interesting.

The Geiger-Marsden experiment

This has a very nice animation of the Geiger-Marsden experiment from which Rutherford came up with the view of the atom as having a tiny nucleus surrounded by lots of empty space. Not on the syllabus, but interesting.

Can you see atoms?

This page looks at how a scanning tunnelling microscope enables you to look at what happens on the surfaces of solids, showing the arrangement of the atoms. Don't forget to look at the animation link on the page. Not on the syllabus, but interesting.

Turning atoms into art

Brilliant sequence of pages from IBM showing how output from a scanning tunnelling microscope can be turned into amazing images. Obviously not on the syllabus!

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© Jim Clark 2009