Video clips and animations
- Paper chromatography
Simple example of paper chromatography of black ink. YouTube
- Fractional distillation
Fractional distillation of a liquid mixture in a university lab. YouTube
- Flame tests
Flame tests for lithium, sodium and potassium compounds. YouTube
- Animation of simple analysis
Flash animation of testing for lithium, sodium or potassium, chlorides, bromides or iodides. Use the dropper to add silver nitrate solution to the solution in the tube, and then move the solid sample to the flame. It is quite hard to distinguish bromide and chloride (look very closely at the colour of the precipitate).
- A video analysis exercise
Identify the anion (negative ion) in a substance via 4 very short videos. (Adding lead(II) nitrate solution is an easy way of distinguishing between a bromide and an iodide. The iodide gives a bright yellow precipitate of lead(II) iodide; lead(II) bromide is white This isn't needed for the IGCSE syllabus.) You will find links to other similar exercises on this page, but they all contain material which is beyond the Edexcel IGCSE.
- The solubility of ammonia - the Fountain Experiment
Not strictly necessary for the Edexcel IGCSE syllabus, but interesting. This shows both the alkalinity of ammonia and its extreme solubility. All of the ammonia present in the flask dissolves in the water - any gas remaining in the flask at the end would be air that was left when the flask was filled with the ammonia. From Mike Thompson's ChemPics on YouTube.
Instructions for practical work
I have referred to practicalchemistry.org as a reliable source of instructions for experiments. If you find anything really good from other sources, could you let me know via the address on the about this site page of Chemguide.
- Separation and analysis menu
This is fairly restricted at the time of writing. There are endless obvious opportunities for practical work in this chapter anyway.
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