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Edexcel International GCSE Chemistry
Edexcel Certificate in Chemistry

Links for Chapter 1: Kinetic theory and diffusion

Video clips and animations

Simple models of solids, liquids and gases

Short animation of the arrangement and movement of particles in a solid, a liquid and a gas. The particles in the liquid in the animation are rather further apart than ideal. YouTube

Evaporation and condensation

Rather childishly presented, but a good explanation of what happens during evaporation and condensation. YouTube

Sublimation of iodine

Iodine being heated by a small flame (mostly out of shot) and condensing again on a "cold finger" - a tube filled with (probably) very cold water. No commentary, and the titles are in German, but a neat view of sublimation. YouTube

Sublimation of ammonium chloride

Not terribly good picture quality, and the sound is hopeless, but this does show exactly what happens if you heat ammonium chloride strongly. Part-way through, the experimenter tests the top of the tube with some red litmus. This is looking for the gas ammonia (which would turn the litmus blue), but it isn't detected. I have used this link again in chapter 15, and will discuss this in more detail at that point. YouTube

A simple model of diffusion and pressure

A quick animation of the diffusion of two differently coloured particles into each other. It also briefly refers to pressure being caused by gas particles hitting the walls of their containers. YouTube

Diffusion experiments

This is a beautifully produced survey of the main diffusion demonstrations. It takes about 5 minutes, but is the most valuable of the videos in this list. The only downside is that it asks questions which it doesn't answer - so you will need to think! YouTube

Instructions for practical work

I have referred to as a reliable source of instructions for experiments. If you find anything really good from other sources, could you let me know via the address on the about this site page of Chemguide.

States-of-matter experiments

The menu of intermediate level states-of-matter experiments from practical

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© Jim Clark 2009